Informe Mundial sobre la Protección Social

Aspectos destacados del informe:
• Pese al importante avance conseguido en la extensión de la protección social en muchos países del
mundo, el derecho humano a la seguridad social sigue sin realizarse para la mayoría de la población
mundial. Solo el 45 por ciento tiene cobertura efectiva por al menos un beneficio de protección
social, mientras que el 55 por ciento restante –unos 4000 millones de personas– no tienen protección
alguna (gráfico 1).

• Las estimaciones de la OIT también indican que solo el 29 por ciento de la población mundial está protegida
por un sistema de seguridad social integral que abarca toda la gama de prestaciones, desde beneficios
familiares hasta pensiones de vejez, y que la amplia mayoría de la población mundial –el 71 por ciento, o
5200 millones de personas– tiene solo una cobertura parcial o ninguna.
• Los déficits de cobertura guardan relación con una remarcable falta de inversión en protección social,
en particular en África, Asia y los Estados Árabes (gráfico 2).
• La falta de protección social deja a las personas expuestas a la pobreza, las desigualdades y la exclusión
social en todo el ciclo de vida, y en consecuencia representa un obstáculo importante para el desarrollo
económico y social.
• Los ODS instan a la protección social universal. En particular, los gobiernos son responsables de garantizar,
como parte de sus sistemas de protección social, al menos un nivel mínimo de seguridad social –un piso de protección social– a todas las personas.
Aunque muchos países ya han alcanzado la protección social universal, hace falta redoblar los esfuerzos
para extender la cobertura y asegurar un nivel adecuado de beneficios.

 

Universal social protection to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals

 

Social protection, or social security, is a human right and is defined as the set of policies and programmes
designed to reduce and prevent poverty and vulnerability throughout the life cycle. Social protection
includes benefits for children and families, maternity, unemployment, employment injury, sickness, old
age, disability, survivors, as well as health protection.
Social protection systems address all these policy areas by a mix of contributory schemes (social insurance) and
non-contributory tax-financed benefits, including social assistance.
Social protection plays a key role in achieving sustainable development, promoting social justice and realizing
the human right to social security for all. Thus, social protection policies are vital elements of national
development strategies to reduce poverty and vulnerability across the life cycle and support inclusive and
sustainable growth by raising household incomes, fostering productivity and human development, boosting
domestic demand, facilitating structural transformation of the economy and promoting decent work.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted at the United Nations General Assembly in
2015 reflect the joint commitment of countries to “implement nationally appropriate social protection
systems for all, including f loors” for reducing and preventing poverty (SDG 1.3). This commitment to
universalism reaffirms the global agreement on the extension of social security achieved by the Social Protection
Floors Recommendation No. 202, adopted in 2012 by the governments and workers’ and employers’ organizations from all countries.
This ILO flagship report provides a global overview of recent trends in social protection systems, including social
protection floors. It analyses the current state of social protection for children, for women and men of working
age, and for older persons, following a life-cycle approach. Based on new data, the report offers a broad range of
global, regional and country data on social protection coverage, benefits and public expenditures on social protection. It presents new estimates on effective social protection coverage for a comprehensive monitoring of social protection systems, including floors, thereby providing the 2015 baseline for the SDG indicator 1.3.1.
Highlights:
• Despite significant progress in the extension of social protection in many parts of the world, the human
right to social security is not yet a reality for a majority of the world’s population. Only 45 per cent of the
global population are effectively covered by at least one social protection benefit, while the remaining
55 per cent – as many as 4 billion people – are left unprotected (figure 1).
• ILO estimates also show that only 29 per cent of the global population are covered by comprehensive social
security systems that include the full range of benefits, from child and family benefits to old-age pensions.
Yet the large majority – 71 per cent, or 5.2 billion people – are not, or are only partially, protected.
• Coverage gaps are associated with a significant underinvestment in social protection, particularly in Africa, Asia and the Arab States (figure 2).

• Lack of social protection leaves people vulnerable to poverty, inequality and social exclusion across the
life cycle, thereby constituting a major obstacle to economic and social development.
• The SDGs call for universal social protection. In particular, countries have a responsibility to guarantee
at least a basic level of social security – a social protection floor – for all, as part of their social protection
systems. While many countries have already achieved universal protection, more efforts are needed to extend coverage and ensure adequate benefits.

Fuente: ILO

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