ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY:
KEY TRENDS IN IEA COUNTRIES
Reliable energy end-use data and indicators are key to inform and monitor the effectiveness of energy efficiency
policies, as they help to grasp the drivers of energy demand.
Energy efficiency is “the first fuel”: it is key for costeffective energy transitions and the one energy resource
that all countries possess in abundance. Strong energy efficiency policies are vital to achieving the key energy-policy
goals of reducing energy bills, addressing climate change and local air pollution, improving energy security, and increasing energy access (IEA, 2017).
Energy efficiency can also drive a number of “multiple benefits”, such as macroeconomic development, public budget increase, enhanced health and wellbeing, industrial productivity and energy delivery improvements (IEA, 2014a; Figure 1).
This report draws on last year’s successful launch of the Energy efficiency indicators – Highlights and provides
an updated selection of data, as collected by the IEA from member countries since 2009. Based on such data, this chapter introduces some historical trends of energy consumption and presents an overview of the final energy-consuming sectors.
Global decoupling trends
Globally, energy consumption and economic development have been decoupling, with gross domestic
product (GDP) increasing by more than 95% between 1990 and 2015, whereas total primary energy supply
(TPES) grew by 56% (Figure 2).